Wednesday, September 19, 2018

PENINSULA HURRICANES



WHY HURRICANES DON'T MAKE IT TO DELMARVA OFTEN

Early on Hurricane Florence looked a lot like she might make
it to the Delmarva beaches but forcasters anticipations fluttered out while she was still three days out. We have had some mighty close brushes with hurricanes but landfall is uncommon on this part of the east coast.
University of Delaware's College of Earth, Ocean and Environment,
has explained this has to due to the warmer water of the Gulf Stream
out of the Gulf of Mexico and as it approaches the cape of Hatteras area
veers off to follow the continental shelf going northwest . The storms will
folow that warm water.
What we get are the nor'easters , every year, maybe up to twelve
which are as damaging as hurricanes. These are the words of Arthur
Trembanis, a proffessor at UDEOE .
September 2003, Isabel, category 2, hit on North Carolina's Drum
Inlet, funneled winds and waves up the Chesapeake, also Floyd, another
category 2, reduced to a tropical storm, in 1999, brushed the Delmarva
and Jersey coast after landfall on Cape Fear.
In the northern hemisphere a storm carries the bad winds, waves
and great storm surge in its right hand quadrant. The hurricans bring along
lots of moisture that causes devistation even where the winds don't hit.
Camille in 1969, made landfalll on Mississippi coasts, killing 256
residents, many of the deaths of flooding in Virginia. 31 inches of rain
reported in Virginia.
The 2012 Sandy made landfall at Brigantine, New Jersey, but also
caused Cristfield, Maryland first responders proplems with high water
rescuses.

Abstract: 09/19/18 by HARRISON H., from; 09/19/18 Delaware
Coast Press, a Salisbury Daily Times article by Rose Velazquez,
through USA TODAY - Delmmamrva.
To: www.delmarvahistory.blogspot.com & Facebook's page
Lewes To Ocean City.



Tuesday, September 18, 2018

GHOST PEEPPER


BHUT JOLOKIA
AKA GHOST PEPPER

The Bhut Jolokia, aka ghost pepper, ghost chili, red naga,
naga jolokia, and ghost jolokia is a hybrid chili pepper grown in
the northeast Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland
and Manipur and is a hybrid of Capsicum chinense and Capsicum
frutescens, a close relative of the Bangladesh Naga Morich.

It is certified as the worlds hotest chile pepper, 400 times hotter
than Tabasco sauce.

This pepper has different names in different regions, as climate has
considerable effect on the heat. The Bhut Jolokia produces capsaicin
in vesicles found in the placenta around the seeds and throughout the
the fruit.

Ripe peppers are 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 inches long and 1 or 2 inches
wide and can be red, yellow, orange or chocolate color, and has a very thin
skin. It is a food and a spice, used with pork and dried fish.

In India it is smeared on fences and keeps wild elephants at bay.

Abstract:; 09/18/18 by Harrison H from Wikipedia. A research of a
topic mentioned at the 3 pm coffee hour at Arby's of Wescoats Corner &
Five Points. Facebook & www.iinni.blogspot.com


pumopernockel


PUMPERNICKEL



Instant research of topics under discussion at the 8 am coffee hour
group who meet at the Wescoats Corner/Five Points Arbys.

Pumpernickel is a heavy duty, slightly sweet, rye bread made
with sourdough and coarse ground rye, often made with rye flour and
whole rye berries. It has been known as 'peasants' bread but during the
1920's became popular as a delicatessen product.

Pumpernickel is a Bavarian term for “hard”, and could refer to
grinding the grain into flour, or, the finished bread . As the name
gets thrown around in German, it becomes “ devil's fart”.

Some say Napoleon named it, being too hard for him to eat, fed
it to his horse, Nicole.

German pumpernickel contains no coloring agents relying on the
process reaction to produce it's deep brown color, sweet, dark chocolate
coffee flavor.
In America, today, bakeries use molasses, coffee and cocoa to
make the brown color.

In Germany it is paired with caviar, on the hors d''oeuvres tray.

Abstract: 09/18/18 by Harrison H from Wikipedia

Monday, September 17, 2018

BLUE SKIN PEOPLE OR METHEMOGOPNEMIA



METHEMOGLOPNEMIA
Blue Skin People

The research of topics of discussion of the 8 am coffee group
meeting at the Wescoats Corners & Five Points Arbys.
e
The subject is a condition caused by elevated levels of
methemoglobin in ones blood, which is, hemoglobin that contains a
ferric iron., causing the relationship of oxygen to iron to be impaired,
causing an increase
of oxygen in the 'heof oxygen in the 'heme sites” that are in a “ferrois”
state within the same tetrameric hemogoblin unit. Now, this leads to a
reduced ability of red blood cells to release oxygen to the humans
tissues causing 'tissue hypoxia' to occur.

This will cause a shortness of breath, cyanosis, mental status,
headache, fatigue, dizziness and loss of hair.

Cyanosis is the bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin from a
low oxygen count in the blood system.
Cyanosis derives from Greek “Cyanos”, aka “kuavoc” , the word
for blue.

Due to a deficiency of enzyme diaphorase I, blood instead of red
is brown resulting in caucasian patients skin gaining a bluish hue.

Hemoglobin in the blood carries oxygen from your lungs to the
rest of body tissues. You really need that.


Abstract by Harrison H, 09/17/18 from Wikpedia for Facebook

SHERMAN HILL & BIG BOY



SHERMAN HILL SUMMIT
AND
UNION PACIFIC BIG BOY LOCOMOTIVE

Research of topics under discussion at the 8 am coffee hour at
Wescoats Corner & Five Points Arbys.
The 1885 era of the Union Pacific railroad's saw locomotives
struggle to move trains of 3600 tons over the Wasatch mountains between Ogden, Utah and Green River. Wyoming.
These mountains held the 176 miles of track beginning at
Ogden,Utah, sitting at 4300 feet above sea level, climbing the Wasatch
Range, to 7300 feet at Aspen tunnel, then down to Green River,
Wyoming, sitting at 6100 feet above sea level.
On occasion Union Pacific had to combine three or more steam
engines to assist heavily loaded trains over the Wasatch mountains.
Early 1940's when the Union Pacific was enjoying a period of
high earnings and profits, the company under a new president , William
Jefferies, ordered built, an locomotive that could pull 3600 tons over
the Wasatch Range unassisted..
Also on the mines of American manufacturers and transportation
managers was the eventual entering of the United States in World War II
which was already putting additional traffic on the heavily traveled
Ogden - Green River route.
In Omaha, Nebraska's Union Pacific's Department of Research &
Mechanical Standards, Otto Jabelmann, calculated that 135, 000 lb.,
of 'tractive effort' was needed for the engine ordered built for Jefferies to
achieve it's goal. The engine was quickly designed and the American
Locomotive Company agreed to build such a locomotive. These new
engines were given trade numbers of “4000 Class” and were to be named
Wasatch series, however, a worker wrote “Big Boy” on the front of the
first engine as it was being built and that name 'stuck'. Union Pacific
already had the Challenger built in 1936, but Big Boy was larger,
heavier and required Union Pacific to lay heavier rails and realign curves.
With the tender Big Boy was the largest steam locomotive built that could
operate on existing standard gauge railroads.
But wait, an interruption, “tractive effort', what is that? Calls for another research period. So it be.

PAGE TWO

Tractive Effort, or Tractive Force, a mechanical engineering term,
refers to the total traction a vehicle exerts on a surface or the amount
of total traction parallel to the direction of motion. Got that down and
understood ? I bet.
Railroad engineering holds the term 'tracfive effort' is used to
describe the pulling or pushing capability of a locomotive.
The term tractive effort is starting tractive effort, continuous
tractive effort, and maximum tractive effort, and are related to common
mechanical factors , input torque to the driving wheels , the wheel
diameter, coefficient of friction between the driving wheels and the
supporting surface, the weight added, is the factor of adhesion that
determines the maximum torque that can be applied before the onset of wheelspin or wheelslip. Starting tractive effort, is the tractive force
generated at standstill, determines the train weight a locomotive can
set in motion, maximum tractive effort is the highest force under a
condition not injurious. Continuous tractive effort is the tractive force
to be maintained , before the system overheats. “Power at rail” is a
railroad term for the available power for traction or the power available
to propel the train.
We intend to have Warren explain this “tractive effort” thing to us
in more detail so perhaps the following will be some help .
An estimate tractive effort of a steam locomotive can be obtained
from the cylinder pressure, cylinder bore, the stroke and diameter of the
wheel . Torque depends on the driving rod angle made with the tangent
of the radius on the driving wheel. The driving force is torque divided
by wheel radius, thus: d = d2 sp / w X 0.85.
OK Lets get back to Big Boy, a 4- 8-8-4 locomotive, the only one
to be so, the front leading truck, had 36 inch wheels, following were 8
wheels, 68 inches, the drive wheels, driven by a piston to each 4 wheel,
followed by 8 more drive wheels identical to the first. Under the cab was
a 4 wheel trailing truck with 42 inch wheels. Each set of 8 drive wheels
had its own frame and was articulated which allowed Big Boy to handle
20 degree curves. Number 4000, the first Big Boy locomotive delivered , was on track by 5 September 1941.



PAGE 3

All Big Boys were 132 feet, 10 inches long, the engine being 85
feet, 9-1/2 inches long, the tender was 47 feet, 5 inches long. The height
of the locomotive was 16 foot, 2-1/2inches. Locomotive and tender were
a maximum of 11 feet. 6 inches wide. The weight, engine was 772,250
pounds, 436,500 tender for total of 1,208, 750 lbs . Almost 605 tons.
The tender, named 'centipede' because of it's 14 wheels, each one 42
inch tall. The tender could carry 64,000 lb of coal. It also carried 25,000
gallons of water in a rear compartment. Big Boy was designed for a
top speed of 80 mph. Seldom did it ever exceed 50 mph and over the
mountain it was down to 12 mph. At a speed of 41 mph there was 6290
hp at the drawbar. Each drive wheel rotated 202 times a minute. This called
for 12,869 cu ft of steam every minute.
The cab had four seats for a three man crew. An Engineer, fireman, and breakman. In 1944 the class 2 Big Boy cost $319,600.
The Ogden to Green River 76 mile run would take at least four hours,
uphill, a clime of 2500 feet. Under full steam the Big Boy consumed
22,000 lb of coal ans 12,000 gallons of water per hour.
As diesel locomotives became the prime mover, Big Boys soldiered
on and were the last steam engines used in regular service. There had
been 17 Big Boys locomotives total in operation for 20 years.

Sherman Hill Summit is the highest point of the Union Pacific
Railroad's First Transcontinental Railroad at 7247 feet. It had first
been named Lone Tree Pass and Evans Pass. The town of Sherman was
a train stop where engines were changed, had a roundhouse, turntable,
water tank, and section houses. There were maybe 100 residents of
Sherman, a general store, post office, school, two hotels and two saloons.


Abstract: Wikipedia, and William Pearces' Old Machine Press, www,
by Harrison H, September 16, 2018, for
www.iinni,blogspot.com and facebook's
Harrison H page.















Abstract: (if you want to call it that OK) September 15, 2018,
by Harrison H. from Wikpedia to www.iinni.blogspot.com
& Facebook





















Friday, September 14, 2018

straws



PLASTIC STRAWS

The Readers Digest Illustrated Encyclopedic Dictionary , 1987, defines Straws
thus: STRAW, a nonn : stalks of threshed grain for thatching used as bedding for l live stock, and, for weaving or braiding as in hats and or baskets. A single stalk of straw. Also, a
slender tube for sucking liquid. .
.

Now a taboo , the plastic straw is an unrecycled plastic waste and contributes to
the plastic pollution of the world.

From the Internets Wikipedia, we find a history on it's 'Drinking Straw' page.
A drinking straw or tube is a small pipe that allows the user to more conveniently to
consume a liquid. A small 'tube' of paper or plastic, such as polypropylene or
polystyrene, it is used by placing one end in the mouth and the other end in liquid, and
by muscular action of the tongue and cheeks reduces the air pressure in the mouth, whereipon ,
atmospheric pressure forces the liquid through the straw.
History holds that the first straws were used by Sumerians, the ancient people
of Mesoptania, now Iraq and Kuwait, for drinking their beer which had solid byproducts
of fermentation .

The oldest known straw ever found is dated 3000 BC .

Te 1800's saw straws of rye grass in fashion, being cheap and soft, but, they
turned to mush in the liquid. 1888, Marvin Stone, patented a modern drinking straw
made of paper to address the shortcomings of the rye grass straw which left a grassy
flavor in the drink at hand.
He wound paper around a pencil, used a paste to hold it together. Later he used wax
to replace the paste since the paste dissolved in his bourbon.

Abstract: September 21, 2018, by Harrison H. from Wikipedia. In today's
Cape Gazette Denis Forney said in Baerfootin' that on his beach walks he finds no straws mixed in the beach trash.


Thursday, September 13, 2018

CITRONELLA



CITRONELLA

MOSQUITOE PLANT


Mosquitoes are a pest and we try to find ways to keep mosquitoes

away. Some folk depend on the citronella plant planted next to or

in your patio. Does it work? Test show it does not repel mosquitoes,

it seems to gather them and they enjoy sitting in or on the plant.

Research teaches us the citronella plant does not produce citronella

oil. Citronella plant, aka pelargonium citrosa , aka geranium, is not

even related to the true citronella. It is a geranium, aka pelargonium,

but sort of smells like citronella and has aromatic chemicals so to speak.

Citronella oil is extracted from lemongrass, aka cymbopgon, a prennial

which grows six feet high and is not frost hardy.

Citronella oil is a registered insect repellant in America but in Europe it

is banned as a repellant.

Even if it did work, it would need to be applied every half an hour.

Eggshells, decomposed three years, are your best bet for mosquito
repellant.

ABSTRACT: September 13, 2018, by Harrison H, from Garden
Myths, Citronella Plant Keeps Mosquitoes Away, by Robert
Pavlis, 18 July 2013.